An evaluation tool, such as a survey, to collect information about the environment.
In the context of schools, these are foods sold outside of the school breakfast and lunch program, from vending machines, snack bars and onsite stores.
Efforts to change environmental factors or human behavior in order to reduce the risk of disease.
The difference in rates of disease among different population subsets.
In this context, the environment refers to the infrastructure of communities that affect people's health, including transportation and recreation and available food for sale and places to eat.
Policies and environmental change efforts that lead to more opportunities to engage in behavior that will lead to better health.
The laws and regulations that affect what can be served or sold in public institutions such as schools, after-school programs, hospitals, and clinics, including vending machines, and other places were food is sold or served. California has passed laws regulating the percentage of fat and sugars in food and beverages provided children in school. A federal law mandates schools to develop a Wellness Policy, which includes nutrition policies and policies concerning foods sold for school fundraising purposes.
Obesity and Overweight
"Obese" refers to an excess in body fat relative to lean muscle mass. Relating to children, scientists use the terms "childhood overweight" and "at risk for overweight" to describe excess weight among youth. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), youth aged 2 to 20 are considered "at risk" of overweight if they are between the 85th and 94th percentiles in weight-for-height for their age and gender and excess in body weight for height. According to the CDC, this definition captures those children and youth ages 2-20 who are at or above the 95th percentile weight-for-height for their age and gender.
This form of evaluation engages those who are slated to benefit from the research as participants in identifying the research questions and analyzing evaluation outcomes. Partnering with community members increases community buy-in and can increase the researchers' awareness of issues they may not have previously identified or considered. The community's views add a depth of human experience and insight can increase community confidence in their power to influence change and help build a relationship in which decision-makers take their concerns seriously.
Physical Activity Policy
A regulation, law or internal policy that affects opportunities for people to be active (walk, dance, lift weights, bike, etc.) at school, work, or elsewhere in their communities. Such policies include physical education in schools as well as any effort to improve access to opportunities for physical activity. Examples include stretch breaks at work, bike racks that encourage employees to bike to work, and gyms or multipurpose areas in the workplace or the school where people can engage in physical activities.
A regulation or decision meant to determine actions and outcomes.
The field of Public Health looks at how disease can be prevented and health improved.
School Food Environment
The facilities (cafeteria, vending machines, school stores), advertising, staff, and foods and beverages on the school campus that influence what foods students eat or have access to during the school day.
School Physical Activity Environment
The facilities (gym, ball field, climbing structures), equipment, resources, and staff on the school campus that influence the physical activity students participate in or have access to during the school day.
Anyone who has an interest in the outcome of a decision or policy.
A federal a law that requires all schools to craft and adopt wellness policies to govern how the school promotes the well-being and health of its students.